Lipids And Carbohydrates 

Lipids

Lipids are water-insoluble organic molecules. You will get the right idea about lipids if you imagine droplets of fat floating on the surface of the broth. In living organisms lipids perform two important functions. One class of molecules – phospholipids – consists of a small head containing a phosphate group (a phosphorus atom connected to four oxygen atoms) and a long hydrocarbon tail. The hydrocarbon tail of this molecule is hydrophobic, that is, the energy state of the molecule is minimal when this tail is not in the water. On the contrary, the phosphate head is hydrophilic, that is, the energy state of the molecule is minimal when the head contacts water. If you put phospholipid molecules in water, they will strive to reach a minimum energy state and line up in such a way that their tails are together, and heads – apart. This two-layer structure is very stable since the heads will be in contact with water, but the water will be displaced from the area surrounding the molecules’ tails. To move lipid molecules, energy is needed – either to remove hydrophilic patches from water or to place hydrophobic patches in water. Of such lipid bilayer structures, there are cell membranes and membranes that separate the components of the cell. These plastic and strong molecules separate the living from the lifeless. Of such lipid bilayer structures, there are cell membranes and membranes that separate the components of the cell. These plastic and strong molecules separate the living from the lifeless. Of such lipid bilayer structures, there are cell membranes and membranes that separate the components of the cell. These plastic and strong molecules separate the living from the lifeless.

In addition, energy is stored in lipids. Lipids can accumulate about twice as much energy per unit of mass as carbohydrates. That’s why, when you overeat and your body wants to store energy in case of unforeseen circumstances in the future when there is no food, it will store it in the form of fat. On this simple fact, a multi-billion dollar industry of dietary products is being built.

Carbohydrates 

Carbohydrates contain oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon in a ratio of 1: 2: 1. In many living systems, carbohydrate molecules act as energy sources. One of the most important carbohydrates can be considered sugar glucose, containing six carbon atoms (C6H12O6). Glucose is the end product of photosynthesis and, therefore, the basis of the entire food chain in the biosphere. By combining glucose molecules, as the main building blocks, complex carbohydrates can be obtained. Like proteins, carbohydrates play an auxiliary role in cells, as they enter into cellular structures. For example, plant fibers consist of cellulose, which is a string of glucose molecules linked in a special way.

Nucleic acids 

The DNA and RNA molecules (see the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology) carry information about the chemical processes going on in the cell, and participate in the transfer of information contained in the DNA to the cytoplasm of the cell. In the DNA of a living organism, protein-enzymes are encoded, which catalyze all the chemical reactions taking place in this organism.

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